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Reasoning

You must be aware what type of logic you are using in discussion.  Otherwise, you can't win a debate.

 

Deduction
Induction
Abduction

 

Deductive Reasoning (演繹法, Descartes. 三段論法Syllogism)
A < B as a general role,   (A is always B in general,)
and
C < A under your observation,   (you found C is a part of A,)
then, you can say
C < B as a fact.      (C will be always B.  Logical conclusion must be always true. Basis of mathematics and science.)

 

Inductive Reasoning (帰納法, Francis Bacon, 経験論Empiricism, John Locke)
C < A under your observation,   (you found C is a part of A,)
and
C < B as a fact,    (C is known to be always B,)
then, you can say
A < B as a general role.    (A will be always B in general.  General principle will be found.)

 

Abductive Reasoning (仮説)
C < B as a fact,    (C is known to be always B.)
and
A < B as a general role,   (A is always B in general,)
then, you can say
C < A under your observation.   (you will find C is a part of A.)

 

Deduction is always correct but does not find anything new.
Induction and abduction is not confirmative, but gives you a new knowledge.
Induction will give you a new knowledge about A. However, there could be an exception.
Abduction will give you a new knowledge about C.

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