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Basic Politics

Monarchy: Government run by King (Emperor) or Queen (Empress). A form of Dictatorship. 

Republic: Any government system which is not Monarchy. Republic involves Dictatorship other than monarchy, and Democracy.

Dictatorship: The Government is controlled by a single person (a King) or specific group of people (a single party).  The government is not controlled by people. China is run by One party dictatorship.

Democracy: Government is controlled by people. People can choose a Party among multiple parties by “Election”.

Transition:

Monarchy Civil War Republic Civil War → Democracy

Liberalism: People have Freedom to Criticize their governmen

 Classic liberalism: No government intervention to economy. Market is free. Expecting rich and poor. Social hierarchy and social inequality are acceptable. Equality is sacrificed for Freedom. Supported by Republican party. Often called “Right wing”, Traditionalist, or Conservatism.

 Modern liberalism: Government supports poor people. Market is controlled by government to some degree. There is Less freedom but More equality. Supported by Democratic party. Often called “Center,Center left”, Social liberalism, or Liberal.

 Neoliberalism: Government controls market to less degree than modern liberalism. Often called “Center right.

 

Left (No Freedom) Center Right (Maximal Freedom) Extreme Right (No Freedom)

Communism: People’s equality is achieved. Strong government control is necessary. No freedom. You cannot criticize government. Often called “Left wing”.

 

Transition: Capitalism (Free market) → Socialism (Social market) → Communism (No market)

Imperialism: Capitalism expanding overseas through military force. Colonialism. Empire.

Feudalism: Everyone is born to serve someone above the class. The feudal system was based on a pyramid of vassals.

Nationalism: Loyalty to Nation above individual interest.

Fascism: Nationalism and Authoritarianism. Supported by absolute trust in one leader (Tyrant) or party. Tyrant seizes personal control with military power. No Freedom. Often called “Extreme right”, Radical, or Totalitarianism (Extreme Authoritarianism).

Libertarianism: No Authoritarianism and No Nationalism. No government support. Anarchism.  

 

Authoritarianism (Despotism): Monarchy and Dictatorship. Government is not controlled by people.

Collectivism: No Freedom. If you go extreme, you end up with a strong government control regardless of direction to the left or right.


Nation = a community of "people" having a common identity such as race.  A Nation means "People," a group of human beings including families and companies.  A Nation does not include government. 

 

State = A political organization (= Government) monopolizing the legitimate use of "violence."  State does not include people, your family or company.   People in the nation is legalized to pay tax to State or their government.

Country = a geographical region, legally identified.  The country of Japan means the geographical land of Japan.

Three branches of Government. 1. Executive (law enforcement).  2. Legislature (law making).  3. Judiciary (law interpretation).   

Executive (law enforcement): "Administrators."  Core of the Government.

Legislature (law making): "Legislators" makes or enacts laws. 

Judiciary (law interpretation): "Arbitrators" do judge in courts. 

国家(State)と国民(Nation)って、実は敵対関係にあるんですね!

Political Science

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