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Chemistry 1 Resources

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/hawaii/periodicsystem1059755_1920.png


 

Proton

Neutron

Electron

 


 

H  --- 1 proton

He  --- 2 proton, 2 neutron

Li  --- 3 proton, 4 neutron

Be  --- 4 proton, 5 neutron

B  --- 5 proton, 6 neutron

C  --- 6 proton, 6 neutron

N  --- 7 proton, 7 neutron

O  --- 8 proton, 8 neutron

F  --- 9 proton, 9 neutron

Ne  --- 10 proton, 10 neutron

Na  --- 11 proton, 11 neutron

Mg  --- 12 proton, 12 neutron

Al  --- 13 proton, 14 neutron

 


 

Hydrogen ion (H+) = Proton

 


 

Ion

ionization, excitation

absorption of photon - excitation of electron

 


 

Isotope

Hydrogen: Protium, Deuterium, Tritium

Alpha particle = Helium ion

Beta plus particle = Positron. Positively charged electron.

P (proton) --> N (neutron) + weak boson --> N + positron + neutrino. 

Positron emission = 1P --> 1N + positron + neutrino.

When an element has more protons than neutrons, a proton will split into a positron and a neutron. The positron is then emitted as beta plus radiation. 

Beta minus particle = Electron. 

N (neutron) --> P (proton) + weak boson --> P + electron + anti-neutrino.   

Beta emission = 1N --> 1P + electron + anti-neutrino.

When an element has more neutron than protons, a neutron will split into a proton and an electron. The electron is then emitted as beta minus radiation. 

X ray particle = Photon with higher frequency than ultraviolet. 

X ray emission = relaxation of an electron + photon.  An electron will emit a photon (X ray) spontaneously with relaxation.

Gamma ray particle = Photon with the highest frequency. 

Gamma ray emission = de-excitation of proton + photon. 

Neutrino emission.  When an element is poor in neutron, the nucleus will capture an electron, a proton is changed to a neutron, and one type of neutrino (electron neutrino) is released. 

Electron capture = 1P + electron --> 1N + neutrino. 

Neutron emission = 1N loss + 1N emission

 


 

1   s

2   s    p

3   s    p    d

4   s    p    d    f

5   s    p    d    f    g

6   s    p    d    f    g    h

7   s    p    d    f    g    h    i

 

s  - 1 orbital

p  - 3 orbitals

d  - 5 orbitals

f  - 7 orbitals

 

Each orbital can accommodate up to 2 electrons.

s  - 1 orbital - 2 electrons

p  - 3 orbitals - 6 electrons

d  - 5 orbitals - 10 electrons

f  - 7 orbitals - 14 electrons

 

1   s                               

2 electrons = (1x1) x2 = 2

2   s    p                           

2 + 6 electrons = (2x2) x2 = 8

3   s    p    d                     

2 + 6 + 10 electrons = (3x3) x2 = 18

4   s    p    d    f                

2 + 6 + 10 + 14 electrons = (4x4) x2 = 32

5   s    p    d    f    g

6   s    p    d    f    g    h

7   s    p    d    f    g    h    i

 


 

1s  H, He 
2s  Li, Be
2p  B, C
2p  N, O
2p  F, Ne

Li

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry21.png

Be

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry22.png
B
https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry23.png
C

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry24.png

N

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry25.png

O

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry26.png

F

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry27.png

Ne


https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry28.png


3s  Na, Mg
3p  Al, Si
3p  P, S
3p  Cl, Ar

4s  K, Ca
3d  Sc, Ti
3d  V, Cr
3d  Mn, Fe
3d  Co, Ni
3d  Cu, Zn

4p Ga, Ge
4p  As, Se
4p  Br, Kr
5s  Rb, Sr
4d  Y, Zr
4d  Nb, Mo
4d  Tc, Ru
4d  Rh, Pd
4d  Ag, Cd
5p  In, Sn
5p  Sb, Te
5p  I, Xe

6s Cs, Ba
4f 
4f
4f
4f
4f
4f
4f
5d
5d
5d
5d
5d

6p
6p
6p

7s
5f
5f
5f
5f
5f
5f
5f

6d
6d
6d
6d
6d

 


 

Single covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry39.png

 

Double covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 1 pi bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry40.png

 

Triple covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 2 pi bonds)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry41.png

 

 

Two double covalent bonds ( = 2 sigma bonds + 2 pi bonds)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry40.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry40.png

 

 


https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry1.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry2_1.png


https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry28.png

 

SP orbital hybridization

S orbital and P orbital sometimes merges and becomes indistinctive/indistinguishable.

SP1 Linear hybridization

When the outer electrons are attracted by two H atoms from two directions, a 2S orbital and one 2P orbital will hybridize and create a new "SP orbital".  The SP orbital contributes to the creation of two directed sigma bonds.

Attracted in 2 directions...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry4_1.png

2s and 2px disappear, and...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry5.png

then re-appear as an sp1 orbit.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry6.png

2py and 2pz are left anaffected.

One SP hybrid orbital has 2 arms. (linear)

 

Example:

Carbon with SP1 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry7.png

Nitrogen with SP1 hybridizationhttps://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry96.png

 

Oxygen with SP1 hybridization???

(This won't exist)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry100.png

SP2 Triangular hybridization

When the outer electrons are attracted by three H atoms from three directions, 2S and two of 2P orbitals will create three new identical SP2 orbitals and contribute to the creation of 3-directed sigma bonds.

Attracted in 3 directions...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry8_1.png

2s, 2px, 2py disappear, and...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry9.png

then, re-appear as an sp2 orbit.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry10.png

2pz is left unaffected.

One SP2 hybrid orbital has 3 arms. (triangular)

 

Example:

Carbon with SP2 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry11.png

 

Nitrogen with SP2 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry99_20211123224101.png

Oxygen with SP2 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry58.png

 

SP3 Tetrahedral hybridization

When the outer electrons are attracted by four H atoms from four directions, 2S and all three 2P orbitals will create four new identical SP3 orbitals and contribute to the creation of 4 sigma bonds.

Attracted in 4 directions...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry54.png

2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz disappear, and...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry53.png


then, re-appear as an sp3 orbit.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry52.png

One SP3 hybrid orbital has 4 arms. (tetrahedron)

No 2p orbitals are left unaffected.

 

Example:

Carbon with SP3 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry55.png

Nitrogen with SP3 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry61.png

 

Oxygen with SP3 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry64.png

 


Examples --> Link1, Link2






Ex1. Dihydrogen (HH)

No hybrid orbitals is created. One sigma bond (one single covalent bond) between H and H is observed.

H-H

H:H

Single covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry39.png


Ex2. O2

1. Non-hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/oxygen_20211125020901.png

2. sp2 hybridization.  An sp2 trigonal hybridization is created with one 2p orbital left alone. One double covalent bond (one sigma bond and one pi bond) is seen between O and O.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/oxygen_20211126021001.png

 

O=O

O::O

Double covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 1 pi bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry40.png

 


Ex3. CO2

An sp linear hybridization of C is created.  Also an sp2 trigonal hybridization of O is created.  Two double covalent bonds (2 sigma bonds and 2 pi bonds) are seen between C and O.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry77.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/co2.png

O=C=O

O::C::O

Double covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 1 pi bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry40.png

 

 


Ex 4. NH3

An sp3 hybridization of N is created.  The sp3 hybrid orbital has 3 arms.  There are 3 sigma bonds (3 single covalent bond) seen between N and H.

N without hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry25.pngWhen N is attracted in 3 directions, tetrapod is created...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry59_20211120143401.png

2s, 2px, 2py, 2px disappear, and...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry60.png


N with sp3 hybridization created.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry61.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/nh3_20211125024501.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/nitrogen_20211126022201.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/nitrogen_20211126022202.png


cf.   SP2 hybridization of Nitrogen

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry98_20211123224101.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry99_20211123224101.png

H-N=N-N

H:N::N:H

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/nitrogen.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/nitrogen_20211126014601.png

Double covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 1 pi bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry40.png

 


cf.   SP1 hybridization of Nitrogen

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry95.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry96.png

N≡N

N:::N

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/nitrogen_20211126020201.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/nitrogen_20211126020202.png

Triple covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 2 pi bonds)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry41.png

 


Ex5. H2O

Not well known.  2 possibilities.  Theory 1 more likely.

1:  An sp3 hybridization of O is created. The sp3 hybrid orbital has 3 arms and two of these arms are involved in sigma bonds between O and H. 

2: No hybridization is involved. Two of 3 unhybridized 2px 2py 2pz orbitals create 2 sigma bonds (two single covalent bond) between O and H.

O without hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry31.png

When O is attracted in 2 directions, tetrapod is created...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry62.png

2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz disappear, and...

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry63_20211120144101.png

O with an sp3 orbit created.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry64.png

H-O-H

H:O:H

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry78.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry82.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/oxygen_20211126024202.png

 

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/oxygen_20211126024201.png


Ex6. Methane (CHHHH)

An sp3 hybridization of C is created.  The sp3 hybrid orbital creates 4 arms.  There are 4 sigma bonds (four single covalent bonds) between C and H.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/carbon1.png


Ex7. Ethane (HHHCCHHH)

An sp3 hybridization of C is created,  One sigma bond (one single covalent bond) is seen between C and C. 

 

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/carbon2.png

C-C

C:C

 

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry84.png

Single covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry39.png

 


Ex8. Ethylene  (HHCCHH) = Ethene

An sp2 trigonal hybridization of C is created.  The sp2 hybrid orbital creates 3 arms.  One double covalent bond (one sigma bond and one pi bond) is seen between C and C.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/carbon4.png

C=C

C::C

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry81.png

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry83.png

Double covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 1 pi bond)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry40.png

 


Ex9. Acetylene  (HCCH)

An sp linear hybridization of C is created.  The sp hybrid orbital creates 2 arms.  One triple covalent bond (one sigma bond and two pi bonds) is seen between C and C.

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/carbon3.png

H-C≡C-HH:C:::C:H

Triple covalent bond ( = 1 sigma bond + 2 pi bonds)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry41.png

 


Ex10. Benzene

An sp2 trigonal hybridation of C is created. The sp2 hybrid orbital has 3 arms.  Each pz orbital creates pi bonds among C.

C with sp2 hybridization

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry11.png

Benzene ring (conjugated)

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry65.png

(© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.)

(Chemistry Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories)

 

https://remedics.air-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/chemistry72.png

(https://byjus.com/jee/hybridization-of-benzene/)

 


Beryllium  sp linear hybridization


BH3  sp2 trigonal hybridization


The sp linear hybridization is normally not encountered in oxygen compounds.

 


 

Oxidation: a loss of electrons (or a loss of hydrogen atom)

Reduction: a gain of electrons (or a gain of hydrogen atom)

Acid: proton (hydrogen ion) donor, molecule accepting electron pair, will produce H3O+ in water

Base: proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor, molecule giving electron pair, will produce OH- in water

 


 

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